Art and Craft is is a ancient technique, which is coming from generation to generation. In Uttarakhand state it is in many forms like Aipan, Patta, Bar Bond, Rangoli etc. One of the good example of art and craft is temple architecture. Crafts of Uttarakhand is also a cultural part. It revales the cultural values and social and econimical of the people, the Craft of Uttarakhand can be divided as craft of Kumaon and craft of Garhwal.The crafts of Uttarakhand include woodcrafts, stone carvings, and may other like jewelry, and inlaying. You can find the remblence in carft of uttarakhand to Kumaoni and Tibetan styles. basket making different types of knitting and stitching is also include in Craft of Uttarakhand.
Garhwal School of Painting
The development of the Garhwal school of painting as a branch of the ‘Pahari’ school of art is believed to have begun in the seventeenth century though it reached its zenith in the latter half of the eighteenth and the first half on the nineteenth centuries. The credit should go to Garhwal’s eminent poet, painter and historian Molaram who contributed greatly in placing the Garhwal style on a high pedestal.
The first phase of the Garhwal style began in the seventeenth century when a mughal Prince named Sulaiman Shikoh came to Garhwal. The prince left his painters behind him when he returned. These painters were Shamdas and his son Haridas who were ancestors of Molaram.
The second phase of painting began in the mid-eighteenth century with Molaram’s paintings. Painters of Guler also influenced it.This is the best example of art in Uttarakhand
Deriving from the Sanskrit word ‘Alpana’, Aipan is the technique of floor painting using rice paste to etch out a symbol on a background of red oxide. The fascinating fact here is the Kumaonis use their fingers to do this rather than a brush or some other tool. The tradition of ‘aipan’ is age old and considered essential on every auspicious occasion. It is solely confined to women folk and the mother teaches it to her daughter. Thus this art has passed down from generation to generation. For the Kumaonis, each deity in the Hindu pantheon has a special symbol and every occasion demands an aipan of a different kind. Thus the designs used in a marriage ceremony are very different from the ones used to celebrate a good harvest or a boy’s initiation into manhood.
These drawings symbolize the mighty Himalaya and are incorporated in most traditional works of art and craft in Uttarakhand. When drawn individually and hung outside the house, they indicate an occasion of great celebration such a marriage or thread ceremony taking place in that household.
A play of dots and dashes, this art form can roughly be compared to pointillism. Every pattern (bar) starts with a dot (boond) and various dots are joined together with straight lines or dashes to create elaborate designs, again using only the fingers. This requires great patience and careful execution as a single misplaced dash or dot has the power to upset the entire pattern. Different colours are specified for different bars like red, green, yellow and blue for the Gaura Tilak bar, red and yellow in the Moshti bar and yellow, red, violet, and green in the Swastika bar. Here is the many examples of art and craft.
These are drawn on wooden boards or thick sheets of paper. Sometimes these are also drawn on walls. Pattas are usually drawn on Krishna Janmashtami, Dussehra, Deepawali etc. the patta drawn on Krishna Janmashtami depicts various leelas of Krishna, which he performed in his childhood. Similarly the patta drawn on Deepawali depicts Mahalakshmi, the goddess of riches, seated on a grand lotus, in a benevolent mood. She is drawn with four arms on this patta. This is famous Craft in Uttarakhand.
Kumaoni women on some auspicious occasions wear a special garment to cover their heads. This garment that has bright red spots on a dark yellow background, with ornate lace work at the border is known as ‘rangwali pichhora’.
It also bears religious drawings like a swastika or goddess Lakshmi. The yellow colour symbolises materialistic health, prosperity and long lasting matrimonial ties.
The Ancient rock Arts
Some tools belonging to the pre-plaeolithic man have been found in the western Ramaganga valley of Almora district and hear the Khutani stream in Naintal district. They are estimated to be about one lakh years old. Besides these findings, some spots like Lakhudiyar, Falseema and Kasardevi in Kumaon and Dungri in Garhwal have ancient rock paintings and engravings.
Lakhudiyar lies about 13 km, from Almora on the Alomora-Pithoragarh road. Here ancient paintings can be seen on a huge rock that is about 8M long and some 6m high. Though the colours have faded due to age and weathering. Sketches of dancing human forms, geometrical shapes, curved lines, trees and animals are still visible enough to inspire awe and curiosity. Several such figures can be seen in nearby rocks as well.
Kasardevi, which is located about 6 km from Almora, boats of a rock that bears the figures of 14 dancing humans. Other drawings on the rock are now indecipherable and the rock too is in a precarious condition.
Woodcarving in different forms on utensils temples or house is found in abundance in Uttarakhand. To give beautiful and artistic shape in a place dwelling, to adom temple by expressing religious creativity, It was mainly confined to express a carver’s creativity and lacked the commercial perspective. Woodcarving found in houses in Garbyang is said to be around 450-500 years old. Therefore, it was a tradition found mainly in the higher parts. It is one of the most exclusive form of craft work in uttarakhand. One could find variety of designs of wood carving based on the images of god and other natural things.
Temple Architecture : this is another spectacular work of craftsmanship in uttarakhand. the temple architecture over here here is such that they do not need any support and are made up of big and heavy stones. The delecacies and the ornate carvings of the stones cannot be defined in words.some of the beautifil temple architecture can be admired at Kedarnath, Jageshwar, Bageshwar, Panch Kedar etc.
Ornament Designing: the design of kumaoni and garhwali ornaments are based on thousand years old tradition. The ornaments are generally made of Gold, Silver and sometimes by the Copper.
In this compititive envoirment the art and craft work is replaced by the mechines. so Uttarakhand government has started its habdicarft development council. It save the anicient aret and craft works of Uttarakhand culture. After that many art and craft workers got employement from this initiative of government. In later years the art and craft works is actively done by the workers but now it becaome reare. One example of art and craft are Rambanns Craft, This craft is made by a plant Rambaans.